Getting ready for your exams? Here is gst105 summary from us that you can read to add to what you have already read to prepare for your upcoming exams.



Please note : Reading only NounGeeks course summaries or any summary you bought from somewhere else isn’t gonna guarantee you pass those exams. Make sure to atleast open your main course material and skim through it once in awhile (we know how heavy/big they’rešŸ˜)




Lastly, we don’t copy and paste past questions together and call it summary, that’s not what we do here, what we do is that we summarize only key topics in that particular course material to reduce the size and make it more comprehensible.



If you want to study past questions, we have it here on the platform, login to download or sign up on the platform, you can download as many years as you want and read.



With my experience in NOUN, if you want to pass your exams you need to set your priorities right. If you want to study past questions, good!, make out time and download like 3 different years and go through each of them, you will notice some similarities between them and then you can focus more on those areas while revising your main material and the summary.






Definitions of Science:

What comes to your mind when the word ‘science’ is mentioned? Is it chemistry, physics, biology or mathematics? The word ‘science’ is derived from the Latin word, ‘scientia’ which means ‘Knowledge’.


READ:  NOUN UPDATES ( 24th september 2021)

On the simplest level, science has been defined as the knowledge of theĀ  Ā  world of nature.



Science as an institution:Ā 


Science can be viewed as an institution which comprises millions of experts. These experts engage in the study and development of human knowledge.

Branches of science:Ā 

  1. Formal sciences

  2. Empirical sciences

Formal sciences include mathematics (which comprise geometry, algebra, trigonometry, arithmetic), logic, theoretical physics, and statistics. Formal sciences have a formal and deductive character.

Science is said to be formal if its contents, arguments and procedures obey certain rules.

Empirical sciences, on the other hand, include physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, botany, zoology, biochemistry, microbiology, geology, medical sciences, etc.

Scientific Method of Acquiring Knowledge:Ā 


Superficially, science is a collection of ā€˜factsā€™ (body of knowledge)Ā that describe and explain the workings of nature.

Although theseĀ facts are interesting – even fascinating – they are not the essenceĀ of science. Rather, the excitement of science lies in the intriguingĀ observation and the carefully designed experiments that scientists haveĀ devised to help us learn about nature.


The scientific revolution:Ā 


This was a period that witnessed a complex change in scientific outlook.

It started in the late 15th century, and reached its highest point in the 16th and 17th centuries.

True experimental science, free from philosophy and religion, emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries.Ā The first great change in scientific outlook after the renaissanceĀ was made by a polish mathematician and an astronomer calledĀ Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543) (Damper: 1989).


Physical sciences:Ā 


Some discoveries in physics, which really led to a true revolution are worthy considering here.



X-rays, as you know are used in hospitals to destroy cancerous cells, toĀ Ā Ā look at bones, to check if they are broken or dislocated, especially afterĀ Ā an accident.

In industries, x-ray photographs are used to reveal hidden cracks in metal castings and welded joints.



Modern biotechnology is now recognized as one of the most developments of the 20th century.

Of the many uses of biotechnology are test tube babies, artificial insemination, gene cloning, animal cloning etc.

BiotechnologyĀ isĀ notĀ anĀ academicĀ disciplineĀ likeĀ BiologyĀ orĀ Chemistry.

This means that many disciplines are involved in any biotechnological activity.

They include microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, plant and animal biology, chemical and process engineering.

Biotechnology is therefore defined as the techniques that make use of living organisms or parts of organisms such as cells, to make or products, to improve plants and animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific applications.

The aim of using these techniques is to increase the production of goods and services for the benefit of mankind.

Some of the techniques of bio-technology are as follows:

GeneticĀ engineeringĀ isĀ theĀ hardĀ coreĀ ofĀ biotechnology.

That is the reason why many people mistakenly assume that biotechnology means genetic engineering.



The impact of science and technology on society:



Where do you live? In a village or in a town? Wherever you may be living, you are likely to see, hear, and touch or use various objects in theĀ Ā course of a single day.


In addition to all these, you are likely to touch and use such devices designed to save physical labour such as tractors, those designed to helpĀ Ā in communication, entertainment, transportation, high-speed computersĀ Ā and medicines.


AllĀ theseĀ andĀ manyĀ moreĀ areĀ calledĀ productsĀ ofĀ technology.


It is interesting to note that before each of these products developed, a significant scientific discovery had been made.

Each of these examples demonstrates a symbolic relationship between science and technology.

Knowledge obtained from the scientific disciplines of mathematics and electronics were used to produce highspeed computers.

What other connections can you make between science and technology? Has technology had any effect on your lifestyle? Consider how it has affected the way you eat, drink, travel, work, play and sleep.

Think about technology and environmental implications – how some of the products such as cars can cause air pollution withĀ theĀ exhaustĀ fumes.

Also think about technology and life and death – about how babies areĀ Ā Ā born today and how old people live before they die, asĀ  compared to a hundred years ago.

You might now be aware that key influences in all these are science technology.

These have been the most potent forces for social change in the history of……CLICK HERE to download the full gst105 summary.


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